Some of the areas of research conducted at Lewis on optical measurement techniques are described. Two laser anemometer systems developed at Lewis are used to illustrate the special instrumentation needs encountered in aeropropulsion research. Velocity measurements to be made through small viewing ports, close to surfaces within the propulsion system components, and in turbulent or highly-accelerating flows are some of the significant challenges. The application to research facilities of two advanced optical systems, the rainbow schlieren and the combustor viewing system, is presented. The calibration and verification of commercial optical measuring systems, such as droplet sizing systems, are also discussed. Calibration techniques capable of simulating moving droplets for flight-type sizing systems are being developed at Lewis. The presentation concludes with a brief look at the forces driving future research on optical instrumentation.